PhD, Islamic Studies, Princeton (1999)
JD, Law, University of Pennsylvanian (1989)
BA, Political Science, Yale (1986)



Additional Books

  • The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. Harper Collins (2005).
  • Islam and the Challenge of Democracy. Princeton University Press (2004). Translated into Indonesian (Islam Dan Tantangan Demokrasi, Jakarta: PT Serambi Ilmu Semesta, 2003).
  • The Authoritative and Authoritarian in Islamic Discourses: A Contemporary Case Study. 3rd ed. Al-Saadawi Publishers (2002). Translated into Arabic (Al-Istibdad wa al-Marja’iyya fi al-Khitab al-Islami: Dirasat Hala Mu’asira, Trans. Muhammad Adil Eid, Cairo, Egypt: Shorouq Dawliyya, 2003. The translation was done by a Professor at Ein Shams University, Cairo, Egypt).
  • Shattered Illusions: Analyzing the War on Terrorism (edited by Khaled Abou El Fadl, John Esposito, Aftab Ahmad Malik). Amal Press (2002).
  • The Place of Tolerance in Islam. Beacon Press (2002).
  • Rebellion and Violence In Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press (2001).
  • And God Knows the Soldiers: The Authoritative and Authoritarian in Islamic Discourses. University Press of America (2001).
  • Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women. Oneworld Press (2001).
  • The Authoritative and Authoritarian in Islamic Discourses. 3rd ed. Dar Taiba (1997). Prior editions: 1997; MVI, 1996.

Articles and Chapters

  • The Epistemology of the Truth in Modern Islam, 41(4-5) Philosophy and Social Criticism 473-86 (2015).
  • Failure of a Revolution: The Military, Secular Intelligentsia and Religion in Egypt’s Pseudo-Secular State, in Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring: Rethinking Democratization 253-70 (edited by Larbi Sadiki, Routledge Press, 2015).
  • When Happiness Fails: An Islamic Perspective, 29 The Journal of Law and Religion 109 (2014).
  • The Shari’a, in The Oxford University Handbook of Islam and Politics (edited by John L. Esposito and Emad El-Din Shahin, Oxford University Press, 2013).
  • The Praetorian State in the Arab Spring, 34 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 305 (2013).
  • The Islamic Legal Tradition: A Comparative Law Perspective, in Cambridge Companion to Comparative Law (edited by Mauro Bussani and Ugo Mattei, Cambridge University Press, 2012).
  • Conceptualizing Shari’ah in the Modern State, 56 Villanova Law Review 803 (2012).
  • The Centrality of Shari’ah to Government and Constitutionalism in Islam, inConstitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (edited by Rainer Grote and Tillman Roder, Oxford University Press, 2011).
  • Fascism Triumphant?, 10(4) Political Theology 577-81 (2009). Translated into Dutch: Opinion, VolZin, The Netherlands, Issue 15, Fall 2009.
  • Islamic Authority, in New Directions in Islamic Thought: Exploring Reform and Muslim Tradition (edited by Kari Vogt, Lena Miller and Christian Moe, I.B. Tauris, 2009).
  • Islamic Law, Human Rights and Neo-Colonialism, in Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2006: The `War on Terror’ (edited by Chris Miller, Manchester University Press, 2009).
  • The Unique and International and the Imperative of Discourse, 8 Chicago Journal of International Law 43-57 (2007).
  • The Death Penalty, Mercy and Islam: A Call for Retrospection, in A Call for Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty (edited by Erik C. Owens, John D. Carlson & Eric P. Elshtain, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2004).
  • 9/11 and the Muslim Transformation, in September 11: A Transformative Moment? Culture, Religion and Politics in an Age of Uncertainty (edited by Mary Dudziak, Duke University Press, 2003).
  • The Human Rights Commitment in Modern Islam, in Human Rights and Responsibilities in the World Religions 301-364 (edited by Joseph Runzo, Nancy M. Martin and Arvind Sharma, Oneworld Publications, 2003).
  • Between Functionalism and Morality: The Juristic Debates on the Conduct of War, in Islamic Ethics of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia 103-128 (edited by Jonathan E. Brockopp, University of South Carolina Press, 2003).
  • Conflict Resolution as a Normative Value in Islamic Law: Handling Disputes with Non-Muslims, in Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik 178-209 (edited by Douglas Johnston, Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • The Unbounded Law of God and Territorial Boundaries, in States, Nations and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries 214-227 (edited by Allen Buchanan and Margaret Moore, Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  • The Modern Ugly and the Ugly Modern: Reclaiming the Beautiful in Islam, inProgressive Muslims 33-77 (edited by Omid Safi, Oneworld Press, 2003).
  • The Culture of Ugliness in Modern Islam and Reengaging Morality, 2 UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law 33-97 (2002).
  • The Orphans of Modernity and the Clash of Civilizations, 4 Global Dialogue 1-16 (2002).
  • Introduction, in Shattered Illusions: Analyzing the War on Terrorism 19-44 (edited by Khaled Abou El Fadl, John Esposito, Aftab Ahmad Malik, Amal Press, 2002).
  • Peaceful Jihad, in Taking Back Islam 33-39 (edited by Michael Wolfe, Rodale Press, 2002).
  • Book Review, Islamic Law and Ambivalent Scholarship, 100 Michigan Law Review 1421-43 (2002). Reviewing The Justice of Islam: Comparative Perspectives on Islamic Law and Society, by Lawrence Rosen.
  • Book Review, Soul Searching and the Spirit of Shari’ah, 1 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 553-72 (2002). Reviewing The Sprit of Islamic Law, by Bernard Weiss.
  • Constitutionalism and the Islamic Sunni Legacy, 1 UCLA Journal of Islamic & Near Eastern Law 67-101 (2002).
  • Negotiating Human Rights Through Language, 5 Journal of International Law & Foreign Affairs 229-36 (2001).
  • Book Review, The Use and Abuse of “Holy War”, 14 Ethics and International Affairs 133-40 (2000). Reviewing The Holy War Idea in the Western & Islamic Traditions, by James Johnson.
  • Fox Hunting, Pheasant Shooting, and Comparative Law (with Alan Watson), 48 American Journal of Comparative Law 1-37 (2000).
  • The Rules of Killing at War: An Inquiry into Classical Sources, in LXXXIXThe Muslim World 144-57 (1999).
  • Striking the Balance: Islamic Legal Discourses on Muslim Minorities, in Muslims on the Americanization Path? (edited by Yvonne Haddad & John Esposito, Scholars Press, 1998). Reprinted Oxford University Press (1999).
  • Political Crime in Islamic Jurisprudence and Western Legal History, 4 UC Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 28 (1998).
  • Muslims and Accessible Jurisprudence in Liberal Democracies: A Response to Edward B. Foley’s Jurisprudence and Theology, 66 Fordham Law Review 1227-31 (1998).
  • Dia, in 7Encyclopedia Iranica 360-62 (1996).
  • Muslim Minorities and Self-Restraint in Liberal Democracies, 29 Loyola Law Review 1525-42 (1996).
  • Hostages (with Asma Sayeed), in Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World(Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • Diplomatic Immunity, in Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • Democracy and Islamic Law, in Under Siege: Islam and Democracy (edited by Richard Bulliet, Middle East Institute of Columbia University, 1994).
  • Islamic Law and Muslim Minorities: The Juristic Discourse on Muslim Minorities From the 2nd/8th to the 11th/17th Centuries, 1 Journal of Islamic Law & Society 141-87 (1994).
  • Legal Debates on Muslim Minorities: Between Rejection and Accommodation, 22 Journal of Religious Ethics 127-62 (1994).
  • Tax Farming in Islamic Law: A Search for a Concept, 31 Islamic Studies 5-32 (1992).
  • The Common and Islamic Law of Duress, 6 Arab Law Quarterly 121 (1991). Reprinted as The Law of Duress in Islamic Law and Common Law: A Comparative Study, 30 Islamic Studies 305 (1991).
  • Ahkam al-Bughat: Irregular Warfare and the Law of Rebellion in Islam, in Cross, Crescent and Sword: The Justification and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition (edited by James Turner Johnson and John Kelsay, Greenwood Press, 1990).


  • International Human Rights Law (Law 273)
  • Religious Legal Systems: Jewish Law (Law 335)
  • Law and Terrorism (Law 367)
  • Political Asylum and Refugee Law (Law 383)
  • Introduction to Islamic Law (Law 549)
  • Political Crimes and Legal Systems (Law 558)
  • Political Asylum (Law 639)
  • The Trafficking in Human Beings: Law and Policy (Law 674)